While refactoring some of the data manipulation behind www.cambridgebumps.com I came across an obvious place to apply some memoization. This is where we cache a, usually expensive, function call so that subsequent calls simply return the cached value. It's a performance optimization.
Now, full disclosure, I actually pulled in the reselect library to do this for me rather than implement something myself. I know, I know, I represent everything that is wrong with modern web development practices! Ironically, I'm now about going to spend a few minutes describing how to do this by hand.
If you look around you'll often find the problem of computing Fibonacci numbers used as a simple example of where memoization helps. It is a nice example and most people will already be familiar with the algorithm.
This function performs spectacularly poorly. Each function call kicks off another two calls until we hit the base case (n = 0 or 1). The runtime is exponential in n. Even worse, we'll blow through our call stack for larger inputs even if performance were acceptable.
Here's a version which uses memoization.
This requires at most n evaluations and performance is restored. There are a couple of points to note about this example.
- The function arguments consist of a single number which makes storing and looking up in the cache trivial. More thought should be expended for the general case
- We've modified the function to take advantage of memoization
Is it possible to memoize a function without explicitly rewriting it? The answer is yes with one exception. Funnily enough the exception is recursive functions; such as the Fibonacci function above. We'll come back to this at the end of the post.
Here's a function we can use to memoize our Fibonacci calculation.
It's basically acting as a decorator which wraps the function and applies the same caching strategy we saw before.
Here's a more general version which can handle multiple arguments. It hands off computing a single key value from multiple inputs to a user-provided hash function.
There we are. A simple method to speed up repetitive calculations. My original motivation was computing derived data on demand. With memoization I can keep my application state to a minimum but avoid a costly performance hit every time I need to re-derive a piece of data.
Oh, and if you're curious about applying this to recursive functions. It's mostly around ensuring the recursive call inside the function is calling he memoized version of the function. The Underscore documentation has a short example.